Q.1- What is a habitat?
Ans- The surrounding where the living organisms live is called a habitat.
Q.2- How are cactus adapted to survive in a desert?
Ans- Cactus are adapted to survive in a desert in the following ways-
(i) The leaves of cacti are transformed into spines to reduce transpiration.
(ii) The stem is thick, fleshy and green, so that it can store water and can carry out photosynthesis.
(iii) The stem is covered with a thick cuticle , so that it can preserve water.
(iv) The roots in cacti are thick and long, so that they can absorb water from depth.
(v) The spiny leaves provide protection so that the animals cannot eat or harm them.
Q.3- Fill up the blanks-
(a) The presence of specific features, which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat is called _______.
(b) The habitats of plants and animals that live on land are called _______ habitat.
(c) The habitats of plants and animals that live in water are called _______habitat.
(d) Soil, water and air are the _______ factors of a habitat.
(e) Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them, are called _______.
Ans- (a) adaptation
Q.4- Which of the things in the following list are non-living?
Plough, Mushroom, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat, Water hyacinth, Earthworm.
Ans- Plough, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat.
Q.5- Give an example of a non-living thing which shows any two characteristics of living things.
Ans- Cloud is an example of a non-living thing, which shows the two characteristics of living things. Cloud shows the movement and grows in size.
Q.6- Which of the non-living things listed below were once part of a living thing?
Butter, Leather, Soil, Wool, Electric bulb, Cooking oil, Salt, Apple, Rubber
Ans- Butter, Leather, Wool, Cooking oil, Apple, Rubber.
Q.7- List the common characteristics of living things.
Ans- The common characteristics of the living things are:
(i) All living things need food to grow.
(ii) The living things grow in size.
(iii) The living organisms respire.
(iv) They respond to stimuli.
(v) The living organisms show excretion.
(vi) The living things reproduce their own kind.
(vii) The living organisms move from place to place.
Q.8- Explain, why speed is important for survival in the grasslands for animals that live there. (Hint : There are few trees or places for animals to hide in grassland habitats)
Ans- Speed is important for survival in the grasslands for animals that live there, this is because :
(i) They can protect themselves from their enemies.
(ii) They can capture their prey easily.
CHAPTER AT A GLANCE
- The surroundings where plants and animals live, is called their habitat.
- Several kinds of plants and animals may share the same habitat.
- The presence of specific features and habits, which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat, is called adaptation.
- There are many types of habitats, however, these may be broadly grouped as terrestrial (on the land) and aquatic (in water).
- There is wide variety of organisms present in different habitats.
- Plants, animals and microorganisms together constitute biotic components.
- Rocks, soil, air, water, light and temperature are some of the abiotic components of our surroundings.
- Living things have certain common characteristics – they need food, they respire and excrete, respond to their environment, reproduce, grow and show movement.
FAQs related to The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings.
Q. What is environment?
Ans- The surrounding in which we live is called environment.
Q. How is the camel adapted to desert life?
Ans- The camel is adapted to desert life in the following ways :
(i) Its legs are long so that its body remain away from the hot sand.
(ii) It excretes little urine, its faecal matter is dry. It does not sweat. It loses a little water from its body.
(iii) Its feet are wide, so that it can walk on the sand easily.
Q. How is the body of fish adapted to live in water?
Ans- Following features of fish make them adapted to live in water :
(i) The body of fish is streamlined which helps them to move in water easily.
(ii) The body of fish is covered with scales. The scales are slippery which make it easy to move in water.
(iii) The fish have gills to breathe in water. Dolphins and whales breathe in air through nostrils or blowholes.
(iv) They have a transparent membrane over the eyes, so that they can swim in water while keeping the eyes open.
Q. Why is it so that the trees growing in mountainous region are conical and the leaves of date palm and coconut are needle like?
Ans- In mountainous region, the wind blows with a high speed. To reduce the effect of high speed wind, the trees are conical. Also, the conical shape and needle-like leaves help the rain and snow to slide off easily.
Q. Write the adaptive features of aquatic organisms.
Ans- Following are the adaptive features of aquatic organisms :
(i) Their body is streamlined which helps them to move in water easily.
(ii) Their body is laterally compressed which help them in swimming.
(iii) For swimming in water fishes have fins, whales have flippers, frogs and ducks have webbed limbs.
(iv) They use oxygen dissolved in water with the help of gills. Dolphins and whales have nostrils or blowholes to breathe in air.
Q. Dolphins and whales do not have gills, then how do they respire?
Ans- Dolphins and whales have nostrils or blowholes that are located on the upper part of their heads. They breathe in air through these nostrils or blowholes. They can stay inside the water for a long time without breathing. They come out to the surface from time to time to breathe in air.
Q. What is excretion?
Ans- The removal of waste substances from the body is called excretion.
Q. What is reproduction?
Ans- The process of producing young ones of own kind is called reproduction.